Here's a twist on legal malpractice and foreclosure that NOBODY but I wants to report. The Malpractice Scheme: Hundreds if not THOUSANDS of attorneys around the USA, including prominent lawyers in YOUR CITY, vigorously promote their foreclosure defense services. They get foreclosure victim clients by promising to "keep you in the house as long as possible." They charge $1500 to $3000 retainer (a downpayment gift) and $500+ a month till the foreclosure becomes final. Meanwhile they file cookie-cutter pleadings they copied from other attorneys complaining about "show me the note," bifurcation of note from mortgage, securitization, wrong track of ownership of note, lack of standing (wrong plaintiff), vapor money (lender deposited borrower's note and used that to fund the loan), and other nonsense. This delays the foreclosure, but the foreclosure inevitably goes through anyway and the client loses the house. BUT, the lawyer seldom if ever bothers comprehensively examining the mortgage, note, and all related documents for evidence of torts, breaches, fraud, and legal errors. Some lawyers sell or promote useless services like securitization audits and loan audits. In the end, to avert the otherwise inevitable foreclosure, some lawyers con the client into a short sale, deed in lieu of foreclosure, keys for cash, or an onerous loan modification that leaves the client owing double to triple the value of the house, and facing a huge balloon the client cannot pay. How does this constitute LEGAL MALPRACTICE? Well, the bank accused the foreclosure victim of breach of contract. So, the attorney should take these steps: 1. Say "give me the contracts and all related documents, letters, lawsuits, etc.," then 2. Search for the causes of action in them against the lender or lender's agents, then 3. Attack the lender and agents through settlement negotiation or lawsuit, then 4. WIN compensation for the mortgage victim's injuries. You see, historically, lenders and their agents have cheated NINE OUT OF TEN mortgagors. Settling or suing on the basis of those causes of action can get financial compensation for the mortgagor. Thus, the mortgagor can fight one of two battles: 1. The foreclosure, which the borrower statistically always loses. 2. The mortgage, which the borrower statistically always wins. Which battle makes most sense to you? Our problem lies in the fact that no MORTGAGE ATTACK legal industry exists. Foreclosure Defense Lawyers focus on the easy money of defense for $300 to $500 a month and the mortgagor loses the house after paying the lawyer upwards of $10,000 to $30,000 for doing virtually no work on the case. They do this KNOWING the mortgagor will lose the house. Those lawyers have not learned how to examine mortgages for causes of action, and I believe most have become too lazy and incompetent to serve the real interests of the client. Many such lawyers ballyhoo claims of winning when the court temporarily dismisses the foreclosure complaint for lack of standing because the wrong plaintiff sued. The plaintiffs nearly always correct their paperwork, get standing, refile or appeal the case, and win. Then the court sells the property and orders the mortgagor out of the house. The net issues: mortgagors cannot find competent lawyers to examine their mortgages. And, the mortgagor with an examination report showing causes of action in hand cannot find a lawyer to attack the mortgagee over those causes of action. Herein lies a huge opportunity for lawyers and mortgagors. Mortgagors do have a mechanism available for negotiating with the lender to obtain a reduced loan balance and payments they can afford, or financial remuneration for their injuries. They can simply contact the lender and demand a solution. If the lender balks, the mortgagor can contact Government regulators and report the lender for violating regulations. That usually brings a quick remedy. Severely injured borrowers might even get the house free and clear WITHOUT NEEDING the services of a lawyer. The public needs to know about this technique and opportunity. I can connect people with a competent mortgage examiner, and I charge nothing for my service. You can read numerous articles I have written on related subjects at http://mortgageattack.com/articles. Many people come to me for help. Some go on to ignore my encouragements, and lose their home. Others get their mortgages examined, and I help them discover how to proceed from there to save the home or obtain financial compensation for their injuries.. If you want to learn more about this, and don't want to read my articles, contact me. I have retired from the computer industry and have the time to help people free as my way of giving back to the community. I have no business obligation to any company. Before deciding NOT to contact me, ask yourself what YOU would do with a mortgage exam report that showed causes of action against YOUR lender.
In his LivingLies Blog entry of 2016-04-27, Foreclosure Pretender Defender and Kool-Aid Drinker Neil Garfield wrote this, correct for a change:
“… you need a thorough analysis of everything that happened with your alleged loan and a careful examination of the pleadings if you are already in court. We readily understand the reluctance to spend more money on what has been a frustrating experience, but the ONLY way you can select a strategy that will or might get traction is by having an experienced eye do a thorough review and report.”
Garfield FAILS to tell his readers that he and his crew don’t have a clue about doing mortgage examinations. They only do securitization and forensic loan audits, not full-bore examinations. And because Garfield has spouted bogus legal theories for years, THOUSANDS of people have lost their homes to foreclosure by relying upon his advice. So DON’T rely upon it. Instead, rely upon the court opinions that I have cited in the Articles section of this site. They prove nearly everything Garfield promotes is a band-aid, at best.
The ONLY reliable place to get a comprehensive mortgage examination that finds all the ways a borrower got injured in the loan is RIGHT HERE at Mortgage Attack.
Go to the Contact page in the site menu and tell us your story. We’ll show you exactly how to get a comprehensive mortgage examination AND how to use it for best results.
|Moving: Such Fun!|
- Hired a foreclosure pretense defense lawer
- Bought a securitization audit
- Bought a chain of title audit
- Bought a loan audit
It will connect you to Allied Van Lines after you LOSE YOUR HOUSE. They can help move all your stuff when you get evicted. You will lose the house, you know…
… UNLESS you heed the comments below.
NO defense exists against a foreclosure of a valid mortgage note that you breached.
None. Nada. Zero. Zilch. Niente. Niemals. Bupkis.
All foreclosure defenses eventually fail. Only a crooked foreclosure defender hides that ugly truth from you. The foreclosure eventually goes through to completion. The foreclosure victim loses the house. OR, if qualified, the victim accepts an onerous loan modification. You probably don’t qualify. Fewer than 20% do.
If you face foreclosure and don’t hire a competent professional to examine your mortgage comprehensively, YOU WILL LOSE YOUR HOUSE, one way or another, sooner or later. If you cannot prove that the lender or lender’s associates injured you at the inception of your loan, YOU WILL LOSE YOUR HOUSE. If you can prove it but fail aggressively to negotiate or litigate on the basis of those injuries, YOU WILL LOSE YOUR HOUSE.
And that means you will have to move out. So, I decided to do you a favor and give you the above number of Allied Van Lines. Call them and they will move everything you own to your new home.
Oh, right, I nearly forgot. If you complain that you cannot afford a mortgage examination, or the litigation or negotiation to use it effectively, then you will really whine about what Allied Van Lines charges to move you across town or to another state.
That’s IFF (if and only if) you have a home to which you can move.
And if you cannot afford the move, here’s what your house can looklike after you get evicted:
|You KNOW Whom to Call|
The worst part of disasters like those shown above: generally the mortgagor (that means YOU, the borrower in default on your loan) will end up owing money for all the necessary repairs, the eviction cost, the litigation cost, lawyer fees, accrued interest, etc.
Only the Mortgage Attack methodology will give you the opportunity to save your home from such a disaster AND win concessions or money from those who injured you.
That means you must get your mortgage examined comprehensively by a competent professional. Then you can use the causes of action from the examination report as leverage in a settlement negotiation or a lawsuit against the lender and lenders associates or agents.
See? You use the causes of action to attack the crooked mortgage instead of defending against an indefensible foreclosure.
“Causes of action” means “reasons to sue.” They can consist of a wide array tortious conduct, contract breaches, legal errors, and violations of state and federal regulations. Examples include appraisal fraud, loan application fraud, wrongful credit reputation damage, and many other terrible injuries that cost you a lot of money or put you in unnecessary jeopardy.
Some mortgage borrowers get injured badly, some get injured little, and some not at all. But any injuries can justify a set-off from the amount of your debt OR another settlement that benefits you, such as a favorable loan modification like a balloon-free reduction in your debt and interest rate, or a keys for cash deal.
You might even win a huge amount of compensatory and punitive damages (money) if you sue successfully for the injuries. In my experience, over 90% of those who get their mortgage examined have suffered injury by the lender or associates.
Yes, you can get a favorable loan modification if you negotiate from a position of power. That means you tell the lender to give you favorable terms (for example assumable 3% fixed rate for 30 years, loan balance reduced to the present value of your home, all accrued interest and costs forgiven, no 1099 to the IRS).
But you have no negotiating power without a mortgage examination report that shows how the lender or others injured you.
If YOU don’t want to lose your home to foreclosure, you know what to do. Call me today to get started on a mortgage examination by a competent professional.
Here’s another number to memorize while you make up your mind whether to lose your house or to take practical action that will give you some hope of redemption in your mortgage:
727 669 5511
It’s your choice:
- Allied Van Lines (800 444 6787 FREE), or
- Mortgage Attack (727 669 5511). Now.
Which makes most sense to you?
What? You still don’t feel “convinced” that you need to call me right now?
Okay, I have taken the time to write up a couple of examples of the benefits you can enjoy IF you act NOW to get your mortgage examined:
And here’s a little help for developing a MORTGAGE ATTACK MENTALITY:
Okay. Now call me. I wait expectantly to hear from you.
727 669 5511
Professor Dale A. Whitman, Dean Emeritus
University of Missouri-Columbia Law School
Dear Professor Whitman:
I saw your article “Learning from the Mortgage Crisis” in a friend’s magazine. I thought I’d write and ask you to send me a copy of the pdf file. Will you send it to me, please, by return email? Why haven’t you posted that article on your site?
In reading your UCC law journal article (April 2013) recommending a proper nationwide standard of electronic registration for mortgages and notes, I noted several issues which I believe warrant comment.
1. I fully agree with you. I don’t blame banks for creating MERS in order to reduce their costs related to recording loan security instruments with county clerks. But the problems related to the musical chairs game with notes, the robosigning, the securitization, the phony bond ratings, the questionable assignments, the foreclosure plaintiffs who lack standing, and the note assignment after suing all beg for a standardized solution. That system you recommend should also mandate notice from the court clerk of any lis pendens regarding a registered mortgage or deed of trust, and of any foreclosure complaint and of any related final judgment encumbering or freeing the mortgage.
2. I doubt seriously that anyone but an idiot would destroy the note, and I believe none of the banks did. I believe they stashed those notes in their warehouse file cabinets and did not want to risk their lost by giving handing them to the courts; furthermore, they wanted the freedom to use them commercially by assigning or handing them to others without the fetter of the court’s having possessions, SIMPLY BECAUSE of the UCC requirement that possession alone entitles enforcement.
From Florida’s Evidence Code in Florida Statute 90.953:
(1) The document or writing is a negotiable instrument as defined in s. 673.1041, a security as defined in s. 678.1021, or any other writing that evidences a right to the payment of money, is not itself a security agreement or lease, and is of a type that is transferred by delivery in the ordinary course of business with any necessary endorsement or assignment.
(2) A genuine question is raised about the authenticity of the original or any other document or writing.
(3) It is unfair, under the circumstance, to admit the duplicate in lieu of the original.
4. If the court cannot admit the copy of the lost note into evidence, how does the note become a fact before the court so that the court can enforce it? Well, how about this handy statute that allows re-establishment?
(1) WHO MAY REESTABLISH.—Any person interested in the paper, file or record to be reestablished may reestablish it.
(2) VENUE.—If reestablishment is sought of a record or file, venue is in the county where the record or file existed before its loss or destruction. If it is a private paper, venue is in the county where any person affected thereby lives or if such persons are nonresidents of the state, then in any county in which the person seeking the reestablishment desires.
(3) REMEDY CONCURRENT.—Nothing herein shall prevent the reestablishment of lost papers, records and files at common law or in equity in the usual manner.
(a) Any paper, record or file reestablished has the effect of the original. A private paper has such effect immediately on recording the judgment reestablishing it, but a reestablished record does not have that effect until recorded and a reestablished paper or file of any official, court or public officer does not have that effect until a certified copy is filed with the official or in the court or public office where the original belonged. A certified copy of any reestablished paper, the original of which is required or authorized by law to be recorded, may be recorded.
(b) When any deed forming a link in a chain of title to land in this state has been placed on the proper record without having been acknowledged or proven for record and has thereafter been lost or destroyed, certified copies of the record of the deed as so recorded may be received as evidence to reestablish the deed if the deed has been so recorded for 20 years.
(5) COMPLAINT.—A person desiring to establish any paper, record or file, except when otherwise provided, shall file a complaint in chancery setting forth that the paper, record or file has been lost or destroyed and is not in the custody or control of the petitioner, the time and manner of loss or destruction, that a copy attached is a substantial copy of that lost or destroyed, that the persons named in the complaint are the only persons known to plaintiff who are interested for or against such reestablishment.
Apparently, a Plaintiff can re-establish the lost note and then enforce it so long as he indemnifies the Defendant against some other party’s effort to enforce the original note. Unfortunately, not many plaintiffs claiming to have lost the note have reestablished it in order to admit it into evidence. In fact, I don’t know of any, but I have imperfect access to court records for conducting a research into the question.
FYI, I am not an attorney and have not attended law school. I’d love to attend, but it isn’t likely to produce any benefit at this stage of my life except to satisfy my curiosity. I study law issues as an avocation.
Since 2007 I have focused on Mortgage issues. I started by inquiring into the means to beat foreclosures. Eventually I abandoned that interest in favor of a principle I call “Mortgage Attack.” I have fleshed out the principle in my web site http://MortgageAttack.com. As I see it, a borrower who breached a valid note cannot defeat a mortgage foreclosure generally. However, a colossal foreclosure defense legal industry has arisen by which attorneys deceive foreclosure victims with a contrary suggestion. In actuality, they bilk their clients out of, for example, $2500 retainer plus $500 per month “for as long as we can keep you in the house.” In my opinion, all those attorneys belong in prison for fraud. To begin with, they KNOW the client will lose the house unless they con the client into a loan modification or short sale. And then they continue using the same tired and frivolous arguments in the foreclosure pretense defense which they know will fail – complaining about statute of limitation tolling, robosigning, vapor money, no original note, conditions precedent, etc. They use copy-machine pleadings and motions in a dilatory effort to make it seem that they earn their fees. And worst of all they NEVER bother examining the mortgage transaction documents for evidence of borrower injury by the lender and lender’s agents and associates.
If I came to you and said “Professor, I just got accused of breaching the note, and now they want to take my house. Will you help me please?” what would you suggest? Wouldn’t you say something like this:
Well did you take out a loan? Did you sign the papers? Did you breach the note by failing to pay timely? Let me see those papers, and tell me a little about the events surrounding that loan. Let me see the appraisal and original loan application, and HUD-1 report, and your TILA notices.?”
Wouldn’t you interview the supplicant to determine whether any shady activities happened? Wouldn’t you verify that the appraiser, mortgage broker, and lender had proper licenses and operated from offices registered with the Secretary of State? Wouldn’t you ascertain whether the broker promised one set of terms, but hoodwinked the borrower into signing papers with a different set of terms. Wouldn’t you look for broker lies on the loan application that made the borrower seem more than actually qualified? Wouldn’t you look at the interest rates and origination fees to determine whether they exceeded standards? Wouldn’t you look for patterns of misbehavior that might justify offsets even in the event the statute of limitations had tolled on the behaviors? Wouldn’t you look for evidence of violations of the FCRA, FDCPA, TILA, RESPA, HOEPA, ECOA, etc? Wouldn’t you look for contract breaches, fraud and other tortious conduct, legal errors, and regulatory violations that injured the borrower?
Normal foreclosure pretender defender attorneys might give those efforts lip service, but virtually never do them. They don’t do them because they don’t know how, a byproduct of lack of intimate familiarity with the regulations and tort/contract/mortgage law, and because of laziness and greed. A competent mortgage examination team might spend 40 to 60 hours on such a project. A typical. lawyer would want to charge a broke foreclosure victim $12,000 to $18,000 for the service. As a result, the lawyer would have to get out of the business of foreclosure defense.
But, that is exactly what it will take for lawyers actually to give their foreclosure victim clients any hope of convincing the lender to modify the loan to the borrower’s benefit, or of convincing the court to order set-offs from the debt or compensatory and punitive damages to salve the borrower’s injuries.
Such winning awards do happen, but they are exceedingly rare. And we shall never know how many such cases settle out of court because the borrower managed to convince the lender to avoid the related litigation.
Here’s an anomalous case for your reference:
In that small article, I provided a link to all of the case documents I could find on the web. You might find more using your WestLaw resources. I have expected a final resolution of the case for several days. The appraiser settled for $700K, and the trial court ordered Quicken Loans to pay nearly $5 million in damages, fees, and costs. Quicken appealed. Maybe you can find out when the West Virginia Supreme Court will issue its final opinion.
I consider Brown v Quicken Loans the “Poster Child” Mortgage Attack methodology case from which all pretender defender lawyers should learn. But I estimate that lenders and their agents and associates have injured or cheated at least 80%, and upwards of 95% of mortgage borrowers in the past 15 years. Precious few attorneys hold them accountable for that maleficent behavior. And let’s face reality. Brown’s lawyer took the case on contingency because he knew the judge and his sentiments well and knew his client had suffered extraordinary injuries, and he knew the client as decent person. Few lawyers will take any foreclosure case on contingency until after having made it ready for trial. That means the injured borrower must handle the case personally, if anyone handles it at all.
And this brings me to my final point.
You have wisely suggested a dramatic and electronic improvement to the loan registration problem. But we have two far worse problems:
- Bad ethics in the foreclosure “Pretense Defense” attorney business model – it should be outlawed.
- Lack of availability of online resources for pro se litigants who should not need a lawyer for “mortgage attack,” coupled with the exorbitant cost imposed by the legal services monopoly.
I know of no cure for the bad ethics other than widespread class actions against foreclosure pretender defenders and State Attorneys attacking them for fraud. Any attorney commits fraud by re-using frivolous legal arguments that he knows will lose. Obviously, judges will not punish them, or they already would have. And just as obviously, law school ethics professors have had little impact on the greed factor that drives attorneys to cheat their clients .
People would find it easier to prevail against crooked banks if they could afford an aggressive, competent attorney. But people cannot afford them generally because the attorneys enjoy a monopoly on legal services. Unauthorized Practice of Law statutes (UPL is a felony in Florida) have made possible that legal services monopoly. But the law does not protect people against incompetent, lazy, or crooked attorneys. Legal writers have recognized this as an outrage for decades:
- The Case for Repealing Unauthorized Practice of Law Statutes
- The Legal Profession’s Monopoly: Failing to Protect Consumers
And of course many people would fare well in court on their own if they only learned the basics of litigation, civil procedure, and evidence code in high school. Unfortunately, it has become exceedingly difficult to obtain a decent legal education in high school, college, or on one’s own because of the practice of hiding the law or making it inordinately expensive to discover. Yes, we have the laws. But government has posted them on a sign 20 feet in the air, and only attorneys have the ladder needed to read that sign. By this I mean the actual law has become out of reach, not because people cannot find it, but because of the skill they need to locate the relevant part – court rulings.
Good attorneys support their legal arguments in their court filings with case law. They generally find that case law using a legal search engine to which they subscribe for a monthly fee. But the filings that resulted in that case law sit in a clerk’s file cabinet in courts across America, or in law books in law libraries that most people simply cannot access.
And that law which people can access suffers from exiguity or poor organization. In Florida only parties to the case and their lawyers can access the electronic filings in the case. This seem more than a little strange in light of the reality that the constitution mandates that nearly all proceedings remain open to the public.
Thank God for Google Scholar and Google Books. Google has made many old law books available, and many if not most of the appellate opinions across America available to the public without requiring that people browse the court sites. Google has done the job that rightly belongs to government, particularly the courts, of making the law available and visible to, and through the search engine somewhat well-organized for, the masses.
I realize that you personally can do nothing about the terrible ethics in the mortgage foreclosure and foreclosure defense industry.
But perhaps you can propose an electronic means of solving the problem of relative unavailability of the law to non-attorneys. Some federally coordinated electronic repository should exist akin to PACER, but free, and fully searchable by topic, party, judge, attorney, clerk, and bailiff, nationwide, making all court dockets and filings, from traffic and all other administrative courts, county and other trial courts, and appellate courts, available to the public, particularly to Americans and students in public and private schools. And that access should cost the public nothing, for the law and the documents leading up to it, should become and remain free for all to read at home through internet access.
And need only one good reason for this. People can easily commit a vast array of “infractions” and crimes without ever leaving home, and become most susceptible to harassment and arrest for alleged infractions and criminal acts upon setting foot outside the home. It seems only fair that people should have the benefit of finding, reading, learning, and knowing the law before venturing out of the privacy of one’s home, if any such privacy remains.
Whether or not a person can afford an attorney, it makes good sense to know the law, rules, regulations related to the case, and to know how and where to find case law. OBVIOUSLY, you should go to a law library or consult an attorney if you can find a competent one willing to fight for you and with some kind of proven track record.
It also makes sense to have a subscription to prepaid legal service like Legal Shield so you can talk to a lawyer inexpensively about your rights and options.
Unfortunately I have learned better than to trust an attorney to develop a sound strategy or to manage a case efficiently or to advocate my cause aggressively. In the end YOU are responsible for winning or losing your case, and YOU suffer (the lawyer doesn’t) if you lose your case. So, you need to keep your “thumb on the pulse” of the case at all times, to keep the lawyer “honest” so to speak, particularly if you have had the sad misfortune of hiring a foreclosure pretender defender (don’t make me name names).
In order to remain aware and capable, you need to learn the law and become disposed to using it. And you should learn about litigation practice – rules of procedure and evidence. I have collected some links to federal and Florida laws, and legal research sites. Enjoy.
Federal mortgage related Law/Regulations
- Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
- Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act – 12 USC 2601 et seq
- Regulation X – 12 CFR 1024
- SUBCHAPTER I—CONSUMER CREDIT COST DISCLOSURE (§§ 1601–1667f) – Truth In Lending Act
- HOEPA Rule that amended TILA under Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
- Home owner Equity Protection Act – 15 USC 1639
- Regulation Z – 12 CFR 1026
- SUBCHAPTER II—RESTRICTIONS ON GARNISHMENT (§§ 1671–1677)
- SUBCHAPTER II-A—CREDIT REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS (§§ 1679–1679j)
- SUBCHAPTER III—CREDIT REPORTING AGENCIES (§§ 1681–1681x) – Fair Credit Reporting Act
- Regulation V – 12 CFR 1022
- SUBCHAPTER IV—EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY (§§ 1691–1691f) – Equal Credit Opportunity Act
- SUBCHAPTER V—DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES (§§ 1692–1692p) – Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
- SUBCHAPTER VI—ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (§§ 1693–1693r)
- Equity skimming on HUD property or VA loan property a Federal Crime – 12 USC 1709-2
12 USC 1709-2
Whoever, with intent to defraud, willfully engages in a pattern or practice of—(1) purchasing one- to four-family dwellings (including condominiums and cooperatives) which are subject to a loan in default at time of purchase or in default within one year subsequent to the purchase and the loan is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust insured or held by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, or the loan is made by the Department of Veterans Affairs,(2) failing to make payments under the mortgage or deed of trust as the payments become due, regardless of whether the purchaser is obligated on the loan, andshall be fined not more than $250,000 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both. This section shall apply to a purchaser of such a dwelling, or a beneficial owner under any business organization or trust purchasing such dwelling, or to an officer, director, or agent of any such purchaser. Nothing in this section shall apply to the purchaser of only one such dwelling.
Florida Mortgage Related Civil Litigation
Florida Evidence code Chapter 90
Witnesses, Records, Documents Code Chapter 92
Rules of Civil procedure and Judicial Admin – http://floridabar.org
Go to Florida Judicial Circuit web site to find local court rules and administrative orders
Florida Code of judicial conduct
Oath of Admission to the Florida Bar
Rules regulating Florida Bar
Cheap legal research
http://www.stetson.edu/law/library/ – Sometimes one can call with a question and get it answered
http://constitution.org – founding documents, scholarly articles, searchable Statutes at Large
Federal Digital System (laws etc)
Florida Appellate court web sites
Florida appellate Opinions
- Supreme Court Opinions
- 1st DCA Opinions
- 2nd DCA Opinions
- 3rd DCA Opinions
- 4th DCA Opinions
- 5th DCA Opinions
- Unofficial Archive of Opinions
ABA Free Full-text Online Law Review/Law Journal Search Engine
Law Journals: Submissions and Rankings
http://www.lexisweb.com/ – Expensive
http://westlaw.com – Expensive
Federal case dockets and documents: http://pacer.gov (you’ll need a credit card)